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She was regent during the minority of her son from Agnes resigned as regent and went to Rome []. Wipo records that " regina Chunehildis " left a single daughter unnamed specifying that she later became a nun []. The source which names her has not yet been identified. Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim At the end of the passage dealing with , Herimannus records the birth of a daughter to " Agnes regina " but does not name her [].

This presumably refers to Mathilde, probably her parents' oldest child given the date of her marriage. The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in of " Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux " and " Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem " and the death in of " Mahthilt soror regis " []. The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in of " Roudolfus dux " and " Mahtildam regis sororem " and the death of " Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis " in []. He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV. He was elected anti-king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich [].

The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in , he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king []. The Annalista Saxo names " sorore regis Adelheida Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " []. Abbess of Gandersheim Abbess of Quedlinburg The Annalista Saxo records the birth of " Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus " []. The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in of " Cuonrad infans filius imperatoris " [].

The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of " Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum " as " regis Heinrici sororem " but do not name her []. Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in , she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne.

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She refused to receive him when he returned in The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name " Iudite " []. This could only refer to the future Philippe I King of France as it is unlikely that the emperor's daughter would have been betrothed to his younger brother. This betrothal is not corroborated in the western European primary sources so far consulted. Emperor Heinrich had one [possible illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]:.

Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the age of her son Johann is correct when he died. Assuming that her paternity is correctly stated, her absence from other contemporary records and her comparatively obscure marriage suggest that she was illegitimate. Emperor Heinrich IV, who would have been Azela's half-brother if the relationship is correctly stated here, made numerous donations to Speyer cathedral between and , during the bishopric of Azela's son Johann.

However, in none of these is any blood relationship with the bishop directly mentioned by using words such as " consanguineus " or " propinquus ". Nevertheless, in the emperor's donation dated 21 Sep he calls Bishop Johann " fidele servicium carissimi ", a phrase which appears more intimate than those usually seen in imperial donations to bishoprics and which could be consistent with family relationship []. His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul King Heinrich faced many difficulties with his nobility.

He deprived Otto von Northeim of the duchy of Bavaria in after accusing him of an assassination plot. King Heinrich was eventually forced to leave his fortress of Harzburg and seek protection in Worms, for which he rewarded the town with special privileges in []. Under the peace of Gerstungen in early Feb , he was obliged to demolish his castles, except Harzburg although the latter was stormed by Saxon peasantry and destroyed [].

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Difficulties with the papacy centred around the dispute about lay investiture in Germany. After King Heinrich's accession, the right of patricius to cast the first vote in papal elections was largely ignored, resulting in declining German influence in the selection of new Popes. The Pope, in response, deposed and excommunicated the king, who was forced into obedience. King Heinrich crossed the Alps into Italy with his family and appeared in Jan as a penitent before the castle of Canossa, in which the Pope had taken refuge, and forced a reconciliation.

The German princes, affronted by the withdrawal of the excommunication, elected Rudolf von Rheinfelden as rival king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb [].

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The Pope repeated his excommunication order in , and declared support for the anti-king []. In the deepening dispute between Church and empire, Emperor Heinrich enjoyed temporary success against Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, one of the Pope's most ardent supporters, and defeated her troops at Tresenta in [].

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However, the emperor was left without political support and was obliged to remain confined in a castle near Verona to avoid capture []. He held an assembly at Mainz in to regulate the succession, declaring his older son deposed and nominating his younger son as his successor []. In , Pope Paschal II renewed the excommunication against the emperor who largely ignored the move.

At a general assembly in Mainz in , the emperor proclaimed a four year peace for the empire, but in his son Heinrich rebelled against him, captured his father, forced him to hand over the royal insignia, and held him semi-prisoner at Ingelheim. The younger Heinrich declared himself sole king of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early Her husband proposed to repudiate her in , but withdrew his demand [].

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The dispute was not finally settled until when Empress Bertha's mother intervened to prevent any repudiation in return for mediating between the emperor and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa []. The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in of " Bertha imperatrix " and her burial " apud Moguntiam " []. The Annalista Saxo names " Eupracciam filiam regis Ruscie qui in nostra lingua vocobatur Adelheid, quam postea duxit Heinricus imperator " as wife of " Heinricus marchio " [].

Contemporary chroniclers were scandalised by the alleged sexual abuses inflicted on his second wife by Emperor Heinrich III. According to Helmold of Bossau Chronica Slavorum , King Heinrich " had made a public prostitute of his wife, subjecting her by force to the lust of other men ". The emperor imprisoned his wife at Verona, from where she was released in by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany.

The Annales Sancti Diibodi gives lengthy details concerning her divorce []. The divorce is recorded in Annalista Saxo under []. The empress publicly denounced her husband at the council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II from 1 Mar []. She became a nun at Kiev in The Primary Chronicle records that Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod took the veil 6 Dec [] , and the death 10 Jul of Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod and her burial place [].

In a subsequent passage, the Gesta records the second marriage of Agnes to " Leopaldo Orientali marchioni " []. The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of " Liupoldus marchio Austrie " and " Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam ", specifying that the couple had seven children who died in infancy and eleven who survived into adulthood, six sons and five daughters []. The marriage presumably took place early in the year if it is correct, as stated by Haverkamp, that it was arranged by Agnes's brother, the future Emperor Heinrich IV, to obtain her future husband's support for his rebellion against their father [].

The Auctarium Mellicense records that Agnes, wife of " Leopoldus marchio ", gave birth to 18 children []. The Annales Magdeburgenses record the death in of " Agnes marchionissa mater Cuonradi regis " []. His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 30 May , at which time the duchy of Lower Lotharingia was conferred on Godefroi de Bouillon [Boulogne]. He was crowned king of Italy in Milan by Archbishop Anselm, although he is also referred to as king of Lombardy [].

His father excluded him from the succession in , and declared him deposed [] , although by that time Emperor Heinrich had returned to Germany and appears to have had little influence on affairs in Italy. The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in of " Cuonradus filius imperatoris " in Italy and his burial " in civitate Florentia " []. The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in " in Tusciam Pisas " of " Chonradus rex " and " filiam Rogerii ducis de Sicilia, adhuc admodum parvulum cum inaudita pecunia " but does not name the bride [].

Malaterra records the marriage in in Pisa of " Corradum…Henrici filium " and " filiam Siculorum Calabriensium comite " but also does not name her []. Houben says "we think the bride was called Maximilla" but cites no source to support this []. The primary source which names her has not yet been identified.

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She returned to southern Italy after her husband's death. No other reference to this alleged daughter has been found. The Annalista Saxo records the birth in of " Heinrico regi filius iunior " []. His father declared him as his successor in at Mainz [].

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  5. In , Heinrich broke with his father who was taken prisoner and forced to hand over the royal insignia at Ingelheim. Regarding this as an abdication, Heinrich had himself declared sole King of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early Jan King Heinrich clashed immediately with the papacy by persisting in the practice of lay investiture. During the course of negotiations to settle the issue, Heinrich left for Italy, spending time in Lombardy to rebuild the machinery of imperial government, and agreed a compromise with Pope Paschal II who agreed to crown him emperor 12 Feb The ceremony was halted by disputes over the settlement agreement, Heinrich imprisoned the Pope and his cardinals, and forced a new agreement at Ponte Mammolo near Tivoli 4 Apr under which the right to investiture was conceded in the absence of simony.

    Although the duke submitted to the emperor in , the imperial army was defeated by the Saxons at Welfesholz in []. After the death of Matilda Ctss of Tuscany in , Emperor Heinrich left for Italy to claim her inheritance but was forced into long negotiations with the papacy which reopened the question of lay investiture. The process concluded with the Concordat of Worms 23 Sep under which Emperor Heinrich renounced the use of spiritual symbols in lay investiture, promised canonical elections and free consecration, but was accorded the right to be present at elections of bishops and abbots in Germany [].

    Emperor Heinrich probably died of cancer []. Her parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis []. Florence of Worcester records that " rex Anglorum filiam suam " was betrothed to " Heinrico regi Teutonicorum " in [], and the marriage " VIII Id Jan " at Mainz in [] of " Heinrico Romanorum imperatori " and " Matildis filia regis Anglorum Heinrici ", and her coronation as empress the same day [].

    Agnes of Germany (1074–1143)

    She asserted the right to succeed after the death of her father and fought King Stephen in a civil war in which she was finally defeated 1 Nov The name of the mistress of Emperor Heinrich V is not known. Emperor Heinrich V had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress 1 :. The Chronica Mon. He succeeded his father in as Conte di Tuscolo. The precise relationship between the following family sub-group and the Kings of Germany has not been established, although the " imperator " referred to by Orderic Vitalis was presumably Emperor Heinrich V, whose wife's brother was among those also drowned in the sinking of the White Ship.

    The election of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia, as anti-king of Germany in represented a symbolic strengthening of election versus hereditary succession as a means of choosing the king of Germany and strengthened the control of the nobility over the central authority of the king.